Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracStandalone


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Timestamp:
Jun 6, 2013, 4:39:50 AM (18 months ago)
Author:
trac
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  • TracStandalone

    v2 v3  
    11= Tracd =
    22
    3 Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server. In most cases it's easier to setup and runs faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI script].
     3Tracd is a lightweight standalone Trac web server.
     4It can be used in a variety of situations, from a test or development server to a multiprocess setup behind another web server used as a load balancer.
    45
    56== Pros ==
    67
    78 * Fewer dependencies: You don't need to install apache or any other web-server.
    8  * Fast: Should be as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]).
     9 * Fast: Should be almost as fast as the [wiki:TracModPython mod_python] version (and much faster than the [wiki:TracCgi CGI]), even more so since version 0.12 where the HTTP/1.1 version of the protocol is enabled by default
     10 * Automatic reloading: For development, Tracd can be used in ''auto_reload'' mode, which will automatically restart the server whenever you make a change to the code (in Trac itself or in a plugin).
    911
    1012== Cons ==
    1113
    12  * Less features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable as Apache HTTPD.
     14 * Fewer features: Tracd implements a very simple web-server and is not as configurable or as scalable as Apache httpd.
    1315 * No native HTTPS support: [http://www.rickk.com/sslwrap/ sslwrap] can be used instead,
    14    or [http://lists.edgewall.com/archive/trac/2005-August/004381.html STUNNEL].
     16   or [http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/STunnelTracd stunnel -- a tutorial on how to use stunnel with tracd] or Apache with mod_proxy.
    1517
    1618== Usage examples ==
     
    2022 $ tracd -p 8080 /path/to/project
    2123}}}
     24Stricly speaking this will make your Trac accessible to everybody from your network rather than ''localhost only''. To truly limit it use ''--hostname'' option.
     25{{{
     26 $ tracd --hostname=localhost -p 8080 /path/to/project
     27}}}
    2228With more than one project. (http://localhost:8080/project1/ and http://localhost:8080/project2/)
    2329{{{
     
    2531}}}
    2632
    27 You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since that's how trac keeps the URLs of the
    28 different projects unique. So if you use /project1/path/to and /project2/path/to, you will only see the second project.
     33You can't have the last portion of the path identical between the projects since Trac uses that name to keep the URLs of the
     34different projects unique. So if you use `/project1/path/to` and `/project2/path/to`, you will only see the second project.
     35
     36An alternative way to serve multiple projects is to specify a parent directory in which each subdirectory is a Trac project, using the `-e` option. The example above could be rewritten:
     37{{{
     38 $ tracd -p 8080 -e /path/to
     39}}}
     40
     41To exit the server on Windows, be sure to use {{{CTRL-BREAK}}} -- using {{{CTRL-C}}} will leave a Python process running in the background.
     42
     43== Installing as a Windows Service ==
     44
     45=== Option 1 ===
     46To install as a Windows service, get the [http://www.google.com/search?q=srvany.exe SRVANY] utility and run:
     47{{{
     48 C:\path\to\instsrv.exe tracd C:\path\to\srvany.exe
     49 reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters /v Application /d "\"C:\path\to\python.exe\" \"C:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py\" <your tracd parameters>"
     50 net start tracd
     51}}}
     52
     53'''DO NOT''' use {{{tracd.exe}}}.  Instead register {{{python.exe}}} directly with {{{tracd-script.py}}} as a parameter.  If you use {{{tracd.exe}}}, it will spawn the python process without SRVANY's knowledge.  This python process will survive a {{{net stop tracd}}}.
     54
     55If you want tracd to start automatically when you boot Windows, do:
     56{{{
     57 sc config tracd start= auto
     58}}}
     59
     60The spacing here is important.
     61
     62{{{#!div
     63Once the service is installed, it might be simpler to run the Registry Editor rather than use the `reg add` command documented above.  Navigate to:[[BR]]
     64`HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\tracd\Parameters`
     65
     66Three (string) parameters are provided:
     67||!AppDirectory ||C:\Python26\ ||
     68||Application ||python.exe ||
     69||!AppParameters ||scripts\tracd-script.py -p 8080 ... ||
     70
     71Note that, if the !AppDirectory is set as above, the paths of the executable ''and'' of the script name and parameter values are relative to the directory.  This makes updating Python a little simpler because the change can be limited, here, to a single point.
     72(This is true for the path to the .htpasswd file, as well, despite the documentation calling out the /full/path/to/htpasswd; however, you may not wish to store that file under the Python directory.)
     73}}}
     74
     75For Windows 7 User, srvany.exe may not be an option, so you can use [http://www.google.com/search?q=winserv.exe WINSERV] utility and run:
     76{{{
     77"C:\path\to\winserv.exe" install tracd -displayname "tracd" -start auto "C:\path\to\python.exe" c:\path\to\python\scripts\tracd-script.py <your tracd parameters>"
     78
     79net start tracd
     80}}}
     81
     82=== Option 2 ===
     83
     84Use [http://trac-hacks.org/wiki/WindowsServiceScript WindowsServiceScript], available at [http://trac-hacks.org/ Trac Hacks]. Installs, removes, starts, stops, etc. your Trac service.
     85
     86=== Option 3 ===
     87
     88also cygwin's cygrunsrv.exe can be used:
     89{{{
     90$ cygrunsrv --install tracd --path /cygdrive/c/Python27/Scripts/tracd.exe --args '--port 8000 --env-parent-dir E:\IssueTrackers\Trac\Projects'
     91$ net start tracd
     92}}}
    2993
    3094== Using Authentication ==
    3195
    32 Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. The default is to use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the examples below, and omit the realm.
    33 
    34 If the file `/path/to/users.htdigest` contain user accounts for project1 with the realm "mycompany.com", you'd use the following command-line to start tracd:
    35 {{{
    36  $ tracd -p 8080 --auth project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com /path/to/project1
    37 }}}
    38 ''Note that the project “name” passed to the `--auth` option is actually the base name of the project environment directory.""
    39 
    40 Of course, the digest file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     96Tracd allows you to run Trac without the need for Apache, but you can take advantage of Apache's password tools (htpasswd and htdigest) to easily create a password file in the proper format for tracd to use in authentication. (It is also possible to create the password file without htpasswd or htdigest; see below for alternatives)
     97
     98Tracd provides support for both Basic and Digest authentication. Digest is considered more secure. The examples below use Digest; to use Basic authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` in the command line.
     99
     100The general format for using authentication is:
     101{{{
     102 $ tracd -p port --auth="base_project_dir,password_file_path,realm" project_path
     103}}}
     104where:
     105 * '''base_project_dir''': the base directory of the project specified as follows:
     106   * when serving multiple projects: ''relative'' to the `project_path`
     107   * when serving only a single project (`-s`): the name of the project directory
     108 Don't use an absolute path here as this won't work. ''Note:'' This parameter is case-sensitive even for environments on Windows.
     109 * '''password_file_path''': path to the password file
     110 * '''realm''': the realm name (can be anything)
     111 * '''project_path''': path of the project
     112
     113 * **`--auth`** in the above means use Digest authentication, replace `--auth` with `--basic-auth` if you want to use Basic auth.  Although Basic authentication does not require a "realm", the command parser does, so the second comma is required, followed directly by the closing quote for an empty realm name.
     114
     115Examples:
     116
    41117{{{
    42118 $ tracd -p 8080 \
    43    --auth project1,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
    44    --auth project2,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com \
     119   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" /path/to/project1
     120}}}
     121
     122Of course, the password file can be be shared so that it is used for more than one project:
     123{{{
     124 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     125   --auth="project1,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
     126   --auth="project2,/path/to/passwordfile,mycompany.com" \
    45127   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
    46128}}}
    47129
    48 == Generating Passwords Without Apache ==
    49 
    50 If you don't have Apache available, you can use this simple Python script to generate your passwords:
    51 
    52 {{{
     130Another way to share the password file is to specify "*" for the project name:
     131{{{
     132 $ tracd -p 8080 \
     133   --auth="*,/path/to/users.htdigest,mycompany.com" \
     134   /path/to/project1 /path/to/project2
     135}}}
     136
     137=== Basic Authorization: Using a htpasswd password file ===
     138This section describes how to use `tracd` with Apache .htpasswd files.
     139
     140  Note: It is necessary (at least with Python 2.6) to install the fcrypt package in order to
     141  decode some htpasswd formats.  Trac source code attempt an `import crypt` first, but there
     142  is no such package for Python 2.6. Only `SHA-1` passwords (since Trac 1.0) work without this module.
     143
     144To create a .htpasswd file use Apache's `htpasswd` command (see [#GeneratingPasswordsWithoutApache below] for a method to create these files without using Apache):
     145{{{
     146 $ sudo htpasswd -c /path/to/env/.htpasswd username
     147}}}
     148then for additional users:
     149{{{
     150 $ sudo htpasswd /path/to/env/.htpasswd username2
     151}}}
     152
     153Then to start `tracd` run something like this:
     154{{{
     155 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="projectdirname,/fullpath/environmentname/.htpasswd,realmname" /fullpath/environmentname
     156}}}
     157
     158For example:
     159{{{
     160 $ tracd -p 8080 --basic-auth="testenv,/srv/tracenv/testenv/.htpasswd,My Test Env" /srv/tracenv/testenv
     161}}}
     162''Note:'' You might need to pass "-m" as a parameter to htpasswd on some platforms (OpenBSD).
     163
     164=== Digest authentication: Using a htdigest password file ===
     165
     166If you have Apache available, you can use the htdigest command to generate the password file. Type 'htdigest' to get some usage instructions, or read [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/programs/htdigest.html this page] from the Apache manual to get precise instructions.  You'll be prompted for a password to enter for each user that you create.  For the name of the password file, you can use whatever you like, but if you use something like `users.htdigest` it will remind you what the file contains. As a suggestion, put it in your <projectname>/conf folder along with the [TracIni trac.ini] file.
     167
     168Note that you can start tracd without the `--auth` argument, but if you click on the ''Login'' link you will get an error.
     169
     170=== Generating Passwords Without Apache ===
     171
     172Basic Authorization can be accomplished via this [http://aspirine.org/htpasswd_en.html online HTTP Password generator] which also supports `SHA-1`.  Copy the generated password-hash line to the .htpasswd file on your system. Note that Windows Python lacks the "crypt" module that is the default hash type for htpasswd ; Windows Python can grok MD5 password hashes just fine and you should use MD5.
     173
     174You can use this simple Python script to generate a '''digest''' password file:
     175
     176{{{
     177#!python
    53178from optparse import OptionParser
    54 import md5
     179# The md5 module is deprecated in Python 2.5
     180try:
     181    from hashlib import md5
     182except ImportError:
     183    from md5 import md5
     184realm = 'trac'
    55185
    56186# build the options
     
    61191parser.add_option("-p", "--password",action="store", dest="password", type = "string",
    62192                  help="the password to use")
     193parser.add_option("-r", "--realm",action="store", dest="realm", type = "string",
     194                  help="the realm in which to create the digest")
    63195(options, args) = parser.parse_args()
    64196
     
    66198if (options.username is None) or (options.password is None):
    67199   parser.error("You must supply both the username and password")
     200if (options.realm is not None):
     201   realm = options.realm
    68202   
    69203# Generate the string to enter into the htdigest file
    70 realm = 'trac'
    71 kd = lambda x: md5.md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
     204kd = lambda x: md5(':'.join(x)).hexdigest()
    72205print ':'.join((options.username, realm, kd([options.username, realm, options.password])))
    73206}}}
    74207
     208Note: If you use the above script you must set the realm in the `--auth` argument to '''`trac`'''. Example usage (assuming you saved the script as trac-digest.py):
     209
     210{{{
     211 $ python trac-digest.py -u username -p password >> c:\digest.txt
     212 $ tracd --port 8000 --auth=proj_name,c:\digest.txt,trac c:\path\to\proj_name
     213}}}
     214
     215==== Using `md5sum`
     216It is possible to use `md5sum` utility to generate digest-password file:
     217{{{
     218user=
     219realm=
     220password=
     221path_to_file=
     222echo ${user}:${realm}:$(printf "${user}:${realm}:${password}" | md5sum - | sed -e 's/\s\+-//') > ${path_to_file}
     223}}}
     224
     225== Reference ==
     226
     227Here's the online help, as a reminder (`tracd --help`):
     228{{{
     229Usage: tracd [options] [projenv] ...
     230
     231Options:
     232  --version             show program's version number and exit
     233  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
     234  -a DIGESTAUTH, --auth=DIGESTAUTH
     235                        [projectdir],[htdigest_file],[realm]
     236  --basic-auth=BASICAUTH
     237                        [projectdir],[htpasswd_file],[realm]
     238  -p PORT, --port=PORT  the port number to bind to
     239  -b HOSTNAME, --hostname=HOSTNAME
     240                        the host name or IP address to bind to
     241  --protocol=PROTOCOL   http|scgi|ajp|fcgi
     242  -q, --unquote         unquote PATH_INFO (may be needed when using ajp)
     243  --http10              use HTTP/1.0 protocol version instead of HTTP/1.1
     244  --http11              use HTTP/1.1 protocol version (default)
     245  -e PARENTDIR, --env-parent-dir=PARENTDIR
     246                        parent directory of the project environments
     247  --base-path=BASE_PATH
     248                        the initial portion of the request URL's "path"
     249  -r, --auto-reload     restart automatically when sources are modified
     250  -s, --single-env      only serve a single project without the project list
     251  -d, --daemonize       run in the background as a daemon
     252  --pidfile=PIDFILE     when daemonizing, file to which to write pid
     253  --umask=MASK          when daemonizing, file mode creation mask to use, in
     254                        octal notation (default 022)
     255  --group=GROUP         the group to run as
     256  --user=USER           the user to run as
     257}}}
     258
     259Use the -d option so that tracd doesn't hang if you close the terminal window where tracd was started.
     260
     261== Tips ==
     262
     263=== Serving static content ===
     264
     265If `tracd` is the only web server used for the project,
     266it can also be used to distribute static content
     267(tarballs, Doxygen documentation, etc.)
     268
     269This static content should be put in the `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs` folder,
     270and is accessed by URLs like `<project_URL>/chrome/site/...`.
     271
     272Example: given a `$TRAC_ENV/htdocs/software-0.1.tar.gz` file,
     273the corresponding relative URL would be `/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz`,
     274which in turn can be written as `htdocs:software-0.1.tar.gz` (TracLinks syntax) or `[/<project_name>/chrome/site/software-0.1.tar.gz]` (relative link syntax).
     275
     276 ''Support for `htdocs:` TracLinks syntax was added in version 0.10''
     277
     278=== Using tracd behind a proxy
     279
     280In some situations when you choose to use tracd behind Apache or another web server.
     281
     282In this situation, you might experience issues with redirects, like being redirected to URLs with the wrong host or protocol. In this case (and only in this case), setting the `[trac] use_base_url_for_redirect` to `true` can help, as this will force Trac to use the value of `[trac] base_url` for doing the redirects.
     283
     284If you're using the AJP protocol to connect with `tracd` (which is possible if you have flup installed), then you might experience problems with double quoting. Consider adding the `--unquote` parameter.
     285
     286See also [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp], [trac:TracNginxRecipe].
     287
     288=== Authentication for tracd behind a proxy
     289It is convenient to provide central external authentication to your tracd instances, instead of using {{{--basic-auth}}}. There is some discussion about this in #9206.
     290
     291Below is example configuration based on Apache 2.2, mod_proxy, mod_authnz_ldap.
     292
     293First we bring tracd into Apache's location namespace.
     294
     295{{{
     296<Location /project/proxified>
     297        Require ldap-group cn=somegroup, ou=Groups,dc=domain.com
     298        Require ldap-user somespecificusertoo
     299        ProxyPass http://localhost:8101/project/proxified/
     300        # Turns out we don't really need complicated RewriteRules here at all
     301        RequestHeader set REMOTE_USER %{REMOTE_USER}s
     302</Location>
     303}}}
     304
     305Then we need a single file plugin to recognize HTTP_REMOTE_USER header as valid authentication source. HTTP headers like '''HTTP_FOO_BAR''' will get converted to '''Foo-Bar''' during processing. Name it something like '''remote-user-auth.py''' and drop it into '''proxified/plugins''' directory:
     306{{{
     307#!python
     308from trac.core import *
     309from trac.config import BoolOption
     310from trac.web.api import IAuthenticator
     311
     312class MyRemoteUserAuthenticator(Component):
     313
     314    implements(IAuthenticator)
     315
     316    obey_remote_user_header = BoolOption('trac', 'obey_remote_user_header', 'false',
     317               """Whether the 'Remote-User:' HTTP header is to be trusted for user logins
     318                (''since ??.??').""")
     319
     320    def authenticate(self, req):
     321        if self.obey_remote_user_header and req.get_header('Remote-User'):
     322            return req.get_header('Remote-User')
     323        return None
     324
     325}}}
     326
     327Add this new parameter to your TracIni:
     328{{{
     329...
     330[trac]
     331...
     332obey_remote_user_header = true
     333...
     334}}}
     335
     336Run tracd:
     337{{{
     338tracd -p 8101 -r -s proxified --base-path=/project/proxified
     339}}}
     340
     341Note that if you want to install this plugin for all projects, you have to put it in your [TracPlugins#Plugindiscovery global plugins_dir] and enable it in your global trac.ini.
     342
     343Global config (e.g. `/srv/trac/conf/trac.ini`):
     344{{{
     345[components]
     346remote-user-auth.* = enabled
     347[inherit]
     348plugins_dir = /srv/trac/plugins
     349[trac]
     350obey_remote_user_header = true
     351}}}
     352
     353Environment config (e.g. `/srv/trac/envs/myenv`):
     354{{{
     355[inherit]
     356file = /srv/trac/conf/trac.ini
     357}}}
     358
     359=== Serving a different base path than / ===
     360Tracd supports serving projects with different base urls than /<project>. The parameter name to change this is
     361{{{
     362 $ tracd --base-path=/some/path
     363}}}
     364
    75365----
    76 See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide
     366See also: TracInstall, TracCgi, TracModPython, TracGuide, [trac:TracOnWindowsStandalone#RunningTracdasservice Running tracd.exe as a Windows service]